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How the human heart works
The human heart
is the organ which pumps the blood throughout the body in the blood vessels. It is composed of very strong muscles known as the cardiac muscles. These muscles keep on beating and pumping the blood from the time the human is born to the last day of human life without any rest.
This gives an idea of how strong these muscles are. The working of the heart is not like a simple pump which just receives and pushes the blood straightly. Actually the human heart is the combination of two pumps; the right heart pump and the left heart pump.
The right heart pump consists of right atrium and the right ventricle. Similarly the left heart pump consists of the left atrium and left ventricle. So the heart has two atria and two ventricles. The atria of both sides act as the primer pumps increasing the pumping effectiveness of the ventricles which are the major pumps and provide the major force behind the blood. The right heart pump pushes the blood through the pulmonary circulation that is through the lungs where the blood gets oxygenated.
The left heart pump pushes the blood through the systemic circulation that is through the whole body. Since the systemic circulation requires more blood force therefore left ventricle is stronger than the right ventricle and pushes the blood with more force....continue reading
Interesting coronary factoids
There are 60,000 miles of blood vessels in the average human body;
The heart pumps the equivalent of one million barrels of blood in a lifetime;
$300 billion is spent annually on heart issues.
There are 400,000 bypass surgeries performed at about $25,000 a pop.
Jim said the key to a happy heart life is: 1) Don’t smoke; 2) Eat Healthy; 3) Maintain a reasonable weight; and 4) Be active. Do all of this and you will live a better and less expensive life.
The arteries (red) carry oxygen and nutrients away from your heart, to your body's tissues. The veins (blue) take oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.
How does blood travel through your body?
As the heart beats, it pumps blood through a system of blood vessels, called the circulatory system. The vessels are elastic tubes that carry blood to every part of the body.
Blood is essential
It carries oxygen and nutrients to your body's tissues
It takes carbon dioxide and waste products away from the tissues.
It is needed to sustain life and promote the health of all the body's tissues.
There are three main types of blood vessels
Arteries begin with the aorta, the large artery leaving the heart.
They carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to all of the body's tissues.
They branch several times, becoming smaller and smaller as they carry blood further from the heart.
Capillaries are small, thin blood vessels that connect the arteries and the veins.
Their thin walls allow oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide and waste products to pass to and from the tissue cells.
These are blood vessels that take oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.
Veins become larger and larger as they get closer to the heart.
The superior vena cava is the large vein that brings blood from the head and arms to the heart, and the inferior vena cava brings blood from the abdomen and legs into the heart.
This vast system of blood vessels - arteries, veins, and capillaries - is over 60,000 miles long. That's long enough to go around the world more than twice!
Blood flows continuously through your body's blood vessels. Your heart is the pump that makes it all possible
What is heart failure?
Heart failure is a chronic, progressive condition in which the heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood through the heart to meet the body's needs for blood and oxygen. Basically, the heart can't keep up with its workload.
At first the heart tries to make up for this by:
Enlarging. When the heart chamber enlarges, it stretches more and can contract more strongly, so it pumps more blood.
Developing more muscle mass. The increase in muscle mass occurs because the contracting cells of the heart get bigger. This lets the heart pump more strongly, at least initially.
Pumping faster. This helps to increase the heart's output.
The body also tries to compensate in other ways:
The blood vessels narrow to keep blood pressure up, trying to make up for the heart's loss of power.
The body diverts blood away from less important tissues and organs to maintain flow to the most vital organs, the heart and brain.
These temporary measures mask the problem of heart failure, but they don't solve it. Heart failure continues and worsens until these substitute processes no longer work.
Eventually the heart and body just can't keep up, and the person experiences the fatigue, breathing problems or other symptoms that usually prompt a trip to the doctor.
The body's compensation mechanisms help explain why some people may not become aware of their condition until years after their heart begins its decline. (It's also a good reason to have a regular checkup with your doctor.)
Heart failure can involve the heart's left side, right side or both sides. However, it usually affects the left side first. For more information visit the American Heart Association Website
Total Artificial Heart Facts
When both sides of the heart can no longer pump enough blood to sustain the body (end stage biventricular failure), vital organs like the kidneys, liver and brain are starved of blood. It is a race against time to restore adequate blood flow to the body before tissue dies and vital organs suffer permanent damage. For these critically ill patients, there are two treatment options: an immediate donor heart transplant or the SynCardia temporary Total Artificial Heart as a bridge to transplant.
• Similar to a donor heart transplant, the Total Artificial Heart is the only device that eliminates the symptoms and source of end-stage biventricular heart failure.
• Unlike a donor heart, the Total Artificial Heart is instantly available at SynCardia Certified Centers.
• The Total Artificial Heart replaces both native heart ventricles and the four native heart valves.
• Implanting the Total Artificial Heart eliminates the following native heart complications..... continue below
Both ventricles of the heart failing to pump enough blood to sustain the body (end-stage biventricular failure).
The left and right failing ventricles are removed.
The four native heart valves are removed.
The Total Artificial Heart is implanted and attached via four quick connects.
The donor heart is transplanted.
1 Arrhythmias, which may require a pacemaker or defibrillator. In 2006, 418,000 patients underwent surgery for a pacemaker and 114,000 underwent surgery for a defibrillator.
2 Failing ventricles, which may require medication or a ventricular assist device (VAD)
3 Malfunctioning heart valves, which may require surgery to correct or replace. In 2006, 104,000 patients underwent valve surgeries. (Source: American Heart Association 2006)
90% of patients who receive the Total Artificial Heart are in the two sickest INTERMACS® categories of heart failure classification prior to implant, whereas 73% of BiVAD/ LVAD patients are in the two sickest categories.
Cardiology has been a prime medical specialty throughout the history of modern medicine. Cardiologists treat diseases and irregularities of the heart. A general cardiologist does not perform surgery. Physicians in the cardiology field who do perform surgeries include cardiac pulmonologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and cardiovascular surgeons.
Modern cardiology has a deeply rooted history with theories still in use dating back to 1628. In that time, it was believed that blood came from the liver (probably from the observation of war wounds from the abdomen bleed profusely) and was absorbed by tissues directly. William Harvey published an essay in that year paving the way for the study of what we now know as the circulatory system; whose primary engine is the heart.
The first cardiac surgery in 1801 was performed in Spain by Francisco Romero, but was met with great disapproval by the medical community. His pioneering efforts were halted for quite some time.
The year 1896 introduced a German surgeon who successfully operated directly on a soldier’s heart, the first surgery of its kind with no complications. Just three years later, in Switzerland, the study of electric defibrillation, electric shock used to restore heartbeat, came to fruition and was proven successful.
1910 gave us the father of open-heart and organ transplantation surgery, and for such studies, Alexis Carrel received a Nobel Prize in 1912.
In 1929, the first intravenous catheter was used by and on its inventor. The pro’s: the ability to safely administer medicine to internal organs and tissues, such as the heart. Cons: Because of his unprecedented actions, Werner Forssman, a doctor in a surgery residency, was removed from the program and discredited for his findings. We still use intravenous catheters today.
By 1950, Charles Hufnagel was the first surgeon to be implementing the first artificial valves for the heart. It was called a caged-ball valve. At that time, the procedure scored an unprecedented 60% survival rate, far more successful than expected.
1953 was a very successful year for cardiological advances. Both local anesthesia and the first heart-lung machine were introduced. The heart-lung machine takes the place of the heart, allowing doctors to operate more intensively and for a longer period of time. The very next year, the first cordless and battery powered pacemaker debuted. This led the way to, in 1958, the first implanted pacemaker. It failed in less than 4 hours. When the procedure was repeated, it did not fail until two days later. Pacemakers now can last for years.
1967 revealed to be another promising and noteworthy year. The first heart bypass using the patient’s very own leg veins occurred, and also the first human-to-human heart transplantation. The transplant surgery went according to plan, however due to anti-rejection drugs of the time the patient’s immune system was too weak.
1974 brought about the initial peripheral human balloon angioplasty, replacing the conventional and much more invasive procedure. Six years later, another device surfaced. Dr. Michel Mirowski, a native of Poland, was credited with manufacturing a device that would be further known as an ICD (Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators).
1982 and 1986 gave us the first artificial heart and the first coronary stent, respectively.
The FDA approved the first angioplasty balloon in 1994 and in 2001, robotics came into play. Robotics now allows for minimally invasive surgeries, and the surgeon can even operate remotely.
2007: Human embryonic stem cells were first used to successfully repair and, in a way, regrow human heart tissues in a lab.......In conclusion
Robotic Heart Surgery: News Articles
Robotic Heart Surgery ep. Discover Remarkable: At the Heart of Medicine
Follow Joseph and John as they undergo robotic surgery for single heart bypass via a few small incisions instead of the traditional open heart surgery. Get to know their surgeon Dr. Manak Sood up close and personal as we follow his journey as a doctor, husband and father. •Source
New heart valve procedure saves lives of elderly December 9, 2011
As recently as 2005, U.S. Air Force retiree Merle Hargis, then 78, would routinely ride his motorcycle to the airport so he could fly one of the ultralight airplanes he had built. More recently, though, he's been too tired, too weak. The problem: age-related aortic stenosis, a condition in which calcium made his aortic heart valve too stiff to properly pump blood.
He needed a new valve.
"But he was too fragile for open-heart surgery," the usual way of getting a valve, says Dr. William O'Neill, a top cardiologist at the University of Miami Medical School. So on Nov. 22, Hargis got the needed valve without the rib-cracking open-heart surgery. Instead, he got it through a small incision in his left chest, guided the four or five inches to his heart by a tube-like catheter.
Hargis' new valve is called the SAPIEN transcatheter aortic heart valve, by Edwards Lifesciences Corp., of Irvine, Calif. It's designed specifically for patients who are elderly and too weak for open-heart surgery. The device has been in testing since 2002, and the University of Miami Med School did more than 100 experimental procedures with it during years of clinical testing leading up to FDA approval
He was one of the first two patients to get the procedure since it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Nov. 2. The operation took place in the University of Miami Hospital's first-of-its-kind Elaine and Sydney Sussman Cardiac Catheterization Lab. Friday was the ribbon-cutting for the new lab, which was built with a $2.5 million donation from Sydney Sussman, the steel, solar power, real estate and parking magnate of North Palm Beach, Fla., and Princeton, N.J.
Morgan Technical Ceramics Produces Biocompatible Coatings for Medical Applications December 3, 2011
Morgan Technical Ceramics announced that it produces a range of superior Diamonex diamond-like carbon (DLC) biocompatible coatings that are ideal for medical implants, including left ventricular assist device (LVAD) heart pumps and artificial joints.
With excellent adhesion and wear resistance, Diamonex coatings have significantly extended component life. The Diamonex range of optimized DLC coatings provide a super-hard, low friction coating with properties approaching those of natural diamond. Applied to both LVAD housing and rotor elements, the coatings provide a medical barrier and wear-resistant coating that lengthens the life of the device.
In addition, the low coefficient-of-friction (0.03-0.25) also increases the mechanical efficiency by minimizing friction at start up and during operation. The coatings provide excellent adhesion and wear resistant protection for both artificial hip and knee replacements....read more
HealthLink On Air with your host; Linda Cohen
Dr. Randolph Chitwood, Jr. is one of the world leaders in minimally invasive and robotic mitral valve surgery, and recognized as the first heart surgeon to perform robot-assisted heart valve surgery in North America. Chitwood currently serves as Chief of the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Sr. Vice Chancellor at East Carolina University.
Ingham Regional Medical Center upgrades to latest surgical robotic technology Posted: November 21, 2011
If there’s one procedure worth going out of one’s way to receive the latest in surgical technology, it would be heart surgery. But for patients in the Lansing area, it’s no longer necessary to go out of the way at all. Ingham Regional Medical Center has announced an expansion of its minimally invasive robotic program to include two of the most innovative da Vinci Surgical Systems, as well as a fellowship-trained cardiothoracic and robotic surgeon.
“Robotic surgery has been around for four or five years now, but there has been a significant improvement in the ability to train physicians on it,” says Dr. Thomas Petroff, vice president of medical affairs at IRMC. “Those things all came together and we were able to recruit someone of Dr. Hassans’ expertise. This allows us to continue our tradition of being an innovator in heart surgery in the area.”
Dr. Hassan, IRMC’s highly-trained surgeon was hired in July and the new equipment arrived about a month ago. IRMC has already begun utilizing the new technology for robotic heart surgery and other procedures....read more
Tales from the Heart: An inside view of the Cleveland Clinic heart center November 20, 2011 By: Plain Dealer Staff.
CLEVELAND, Ohio -- On Aug. 22, beginning at 5 a.m., Plain Dealer reporters, photographers, videographers and editors stationed themselves throughout the Cleveland Clinic Miller Family Heart & Vascular Institute.
Part 8: 'To see another day': Is it right to prolong his life if there is no hope of fixing the man’s underlying problems.....
For Tales from the Heart Multimedia......Click here
Allen Raczkowski, MD
Robot-Assisted Heart Surgery Expert Dr. Allen Raczkowski Joins UA Department of Surgery November 16, 2011
Allen Raczkowski, MD, has joined the University of Arizona Department of Surgery Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery as assistant professor of surgery. Recognized as one of the pioneers in using the da Vinci robot for minimally invasive coronary operations, Dr. Raczkowski performed hundreds of robot-assisted heart surgeries in Phoenix before joining the UA.
Dr. Raczkowski’s practice focuses on robot-assisted heart valve surgery, such as mitral valve repair and replacement and robot-assisted aortic valve surgery. He was the first surgeon in the world to use the robot to do non-arrested mitral repairs on a human. During this procedure, the heart continues to beat while the valve is repaired. In Arizona, he was the first to do endoscopic robotic mitral valve replacement and repairs, and the first to do a surgical maze procedure to treatatrial fibrillation. During the maze surgery, the surgeon uses small incisions, radio waves, freezing, or microwave or ultrasound energy to create scar tissue to block the abnormal electrical signals causing the arrhythmia.
Board certified in surgery and thoracic surgery, Dr. Raczkowski completed his general surgery residency and cardiothoracic surgery fellowship at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.
New, Minimally Invasive Options for Cardiac Arrhythmia Patients Posted: November 17, 2011
Stanford surgeons are using a robot-driven assisting arm in a new procedure to correct heart arrhythmia. The robotic arm hovers over the patient, performing precision movements directed by a joystick.
SSM Heart Institute cardiothoracic surgeon recognized as national leader in robotic-assisted surgery Posted: November 12, 2011
ST. LOUIS – Dr. David Theodoro with the SSM Heart Institute at DePaul Health Center is now one of only two cardiothoracic surgeons in the state of Missouri and the only surgeon in the St. Louis region to be recognized on a national surgeon finder database for his work with robotic-assisted mitral valve repair surgery. Dr. Theodoro is already recognized for his work in minimally invasive heart valve surgery. This newest honor is a result of his achieved volume and experience with the da Vinci robotic surgery system, placing him among the leading surgeons nationally for this type of procedure....read more
Saint Joseph Heart Institute earns national ranking for robotic heart procedures November 10, 2011
Lead surgeon Michael Sekela and team are ranked 11th nationally for robotic valve procedures in patient volume.
Conventional heart surgery involves splitting a patient’s breastbone and spreading the ribs with a retractor. The trauma associated with the procedure results in a long recovery.
Michael Sekela, MD, with Surgical Associates of Lexington, is determined to make life-saving heart operations available to more patients and to do it with less trauma. To accomplish his goal, Sekela and his team partnered with Saint Joseph Hospital in 2009 to offer minimally-invasive heart surgery using the da Vinci® Robotic Surgical System.
Using the da Vinci system, Dr. Sekela can perform heart surgeries using just a few small incisions. “The benefits of the da Vinci are clear,” Sekela said. “There is no open chest, less pain and trauma, a shorter recovery and hospital stay, and a rapid return to normal daily life.”...read more
Surgeon Determined to Make Mitral Valve Repair the Gold Standard November 4, 2011
Didier De Cannière, M.D., Ph.D., professor of surgery, is on a mission. A pioneer in minimally invasive robotic surgery, he joined the Miller School from one of Europe’s largest heart surgery services nearly two years ago in hopes of helping lead a revolution in mitral valve repair in the United States.
Today, most patients diagnosed with a leaking, or regurgitant, mitral valve, which controls the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the body, undergo open-chest surgery to replace their defective valve with a bioprosthetic or mechanical valve.
But like fellow experts in his elite league, De Cannière, who is director of the new Institute for Surgical Innovation and the Minimally Invasive and Robotic Cardiac Surgery Center at University of Miami Hospital, is deeply committed to proving that repairing – rather than replacing – the mitral valve is the best option, with the best results, for nearly all patients with leaking mitral valves. Several scientific studies in prestigious medical journals, such as Circulation, have shown that in Europe, where mitral repair was developed, repair leads to longer survival rates, better heart function and fewer strokes and other complications than mitral replacement. In most cases, it also eliminates the need for long-term use of anticoagulants.
“Mitral valve repair is way superior to replacement, yet only 15 percent of cardiac surgeons repair rather than replace valves,” says De Cannière, who has shared his expertise around the world and, most recently, was chief of cardiac surgery at Erasme Academic Hospital and Tivoli University Hospital at Brussels Free University in his native Belgium. “What I know for a fact is that there is added value in these new technologies for patients and I came here to be part of the group of people who are, hopefully, going to really demonstrate this added value to their peers. This is why I am at an academic medical institution.’’...read more
In order to overcome the limitations of currently available assistive technologies for minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS), we have developed a novel highly articulated robotic probe (HARP) that can exploit its snake-like structure to navigate in a confined anatomical environment while minimally interacting with the environment along its path.
We believe that for procedures involving epicardial interventions on the beating heart, MICS can be effectively realized with the HARP, entering the pericardial cavity through a subxiphoid port, reaching remote intrapericardial locations on the epicardium without causing hemodynamic and electrophysiologic interference and delivering therapeutic interventions under the direct control of the surgeon.
View or Download .PDF File for complete Publication
Percutaneous Intrapericardial Interventions Using a Highly Articulated Robotic Probe
SynCardia Honored With Membership in World Technology Network November 2, 2011
SynCardia Systems, Inc. (http://www.syncardia.com/), manufacturer of the SynCardia temporary Total Artificial Heart, announced today that it has been inducted into the World Technology Network (WTN) as a new Corporate Member. Membership can only occur through the annual Awards process, in which individuals and companies are selected via the judgment of the current WTN Fellows. SynCardia was selected as one of 6 finalists for the 2011 World Technology Award in Health & Medicine, presented in association with TIME, Fortune, CNN, Science/AAAS and Technology Review....read more
Gleason fundraiser set up October 18, 2011
The student athletic trainers at Billings West have established a fundraiser for longtime West athletic trainer Don Gleason. Gleason underwent robotic heart surgery in June in Spokane to repair a prolapsed mitral valve.
That surgery was not successful, and Gleason is scheduled to undergo open heart surgery this week in Denver.
The funds will be raised through pledges based on each time the varsity football team scores or for a specific stat category of a varsity volleyball player. The funds will be used to help with the expenses of surgery and travel for Gleason and his wife, Linda.
Robotic Arms Open New Doors for Heart Patients October 12, 2011
Many patients facing heart bypass surgery are daunted: the process can involve large incisions that heal slowly and present a greater risk of infection. But with a little robotic help, a small team of specialists is offering a less invasive option that can send patients home--and allow them to heal--faster than the traditional approach.
Dr. Molly Szerlip, director of the University of Arizona Medical Center's Hybrid Coronary Program, and Dr. Robert Poston, UA chief of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery, join Arizona Illustrated to discuss their pioneering program and the importance, for heart patients, of knowing that alternative surgery options are available.
Hospital's robot performs 'remote control' heart surgery October 4, 2011
Dorothy Jones was admitted to the Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center in Fountain Valley after her niece found her in the bathroom complaining of chest pain and a pounding in her heart and throat.
Jones, a 78-year-old resident of Garden Grove, had experienced frequent heart palpitations for 15 years, and the pain had gotten worse, she said, until that night, when the pain wouldn't go away. "My heart was pounding and pounding," Jones said. "It was very painful, and I couldn't catch my breath."
Tests revealed that Jones had two clogged arteries in her heart and needed surgery. Jones was facing traditional heart-bypass surgery, which is considerably painful and requires approximately six weeks of hospitalization and up to three months of recovery time.
There was another option. Doctors at Orange Coast told Jones that she was a good candidate for a new hybrid procedure using a robot-assisted surgical system that would decrease hospitalization to three days and recovery time to about two weeks....read more
Robotic Heart Surgery at Maryland Heart Center.
Clydesdale Farmer Back on His Tractor Two Weeks After Robotic Heart Bypass Surgery Posted: September 26, 2011
In September 2010, Richard Stansbury was going about his usual chores on his farm in Mount Airy, Maryland. At that time, he had no idea what lay ahead or how fortunate he would be to cross paths with Dr. Johannes Bonatti of the University of Maryland Medical Center. Richard's daughter, Catherine, shares his remarkable story below.
During a routine follow-up visit to my dad’s primary care physician for diabetes management, it was revealed that he was at risk of having a silent MI, which is a type of heart attack common among diabetics that presents no obvious symptoms. Looking back, what we now know were symptoms of real cardiac problems were being dismissed by my dad as signs that he was getting older.
In the weeks following this warning from his doctor, a trip to the cardiologist, followed by a failed stress test and a cardiac catheterization, led our family to hear the most disappointing words: "Your dad is not a candidate for a stent repair." He needed open heart surgery to reduce his risk of heart attack.
We were referred to UMMC’s Heart Center and met with Dr. Bonatti who presented my dad with two options: coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or a minimally invasive robotic surgery procedure.
We were told that the minimally invasive operation would be performed through tiny holes without opening the chest. Dr. Bonatti was also careful to explain that there are certain health pre-requisites that patients must meet to qualify for this particular surgery.
Beyond Mitral Valve Repair, The Da Vinci Robot Paints A Van Gogh, Dr. Charles Anderson Uploaded by HeartValveSurgery on Aug 29, 2011
In this unique video, Dr. Charles Anderson, from Multicare in Tacoma, Washington, uses the Da Vinci Surgical Robot to paint a Vincent Van Gogh look alike of "Starry Night".
FEHI organised an Interactive Clinic on Cardiovascular Interventions and Emergencies August 22, 2011
International cardiologists at the clinic talked about a novel procedure for treating Cardioembolic Stroke – a condition in which the blood clot arises in the chambers of the heart. Fortis Escorts Heart Institute (FEHI), a fully dedicated cardiac care facility in India organised an Interactive Clinic on Cardiovascular Interventions and Emergencies at Hotel Eros, Nehru Place today.
More than 400 renowned cardiologists of national and international repute participated in the two day clinic, along with the doctors from related fields. The sessions at this unique interactive clinic focused on the latest developments in cardiology and cutting edge cardiac practice being followed in various parts of the world.
Speaking on the occasion, Dr. Atul Mathur, Director Interventional Cardiology, FEHI said, “Cardiologists in India are ready to embark upon a journey to the next dimension where open chest heart surgeries will slowly get replaced by non surgical therapies to replace and repair valves, prevent brain strokes by plugging the heart or unblocking choked brain arteries, and deploy stents that vanish in time. We showcase these advances in a major conglomeration of specialists from India and abroad.”...read more
Lourdes Performs its First Robot-Assisted, Hybrid Heart Procedure August 15, 2011
Arthur T. Martella, MD, chief of cardiothoracic surgery at Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center, and Anil G. Kothari, MD, FACC, FSCA & I of South Jersey Heart Group, an affiliate of Lourdes Health System, performed the hospital's first "hybrid" heart surgery and what is believed to be the first such procedure in southern New Jersey. Hybrid heart surgery utilizes the strengths of a surgical approach -- in this case using the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System -- to treatment with that of a catheter-based interventional procedure.
The patient, a 64-year-old woman, suffered from multi-vessel coronary artery disease. This condition is what ultimately led Drs. Martella and Kothari to choose the hybrid surgery option.
"Since the patient's case was more complex, we chose to do a hybrid procedure. There are some vessels on the heart that the interventional cardiologist is better at treating than the surgeon. Similarly, there are some vessels that the surgeon can treat more effectively than the cardiologist," said Dr. Martella.
This innovative hybrid procedure combines minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with stenting, and is very much a joint effort between the surgeon and the cardiologist. The cardiologist inserts stents while the surgeon uses robotics for the remainder of the procedure.....read more
Hybrid operating rooms pull double duty at hospitals August 7, 2011
Allen Williams was confident when he had a heart operation last month that he'd be in the right place if anything went wrong.
Williams, 65, of Detroit had a ruptured stomach artery that doctors fixed with a minimally invasive procedure. Had the operation gotten tricky or gone wrong, his doctor could have switched immediately to do the rest of the operation with a large chest incision in a new type of operating room at St. John Hospital and Medical Center in Detroit.
Hybrid operating rooms, as they are called, bring together the most modern of surgical innovations with the equipment and staffing for conventional open-heart procedures.
The ECRI Institute, a nonprofit Pennsylvania organization that advises hospitals on spending and planning for new technology, estimates that fewer than 100 U.S. hospitals have hybrid rooms. But the number "is expected to climb rapidly" with 15 percent or more yearly increases in hospitals adding them over the next few years, said Robert Bense, a senior health care technology executive.
Procedures suited to the new hybrid rooms use minimally invasive methods to fix and replace heart valves; correct abnormal heartbeats; and place tiny metal coils, or stents, to fix stiffened, aging heart vessels.
At costs of $1.5 million to $9 million, if robots and videoconferencing technology are included, hospitals seek out generous donors to help pay for the new operating suites.....read more
Robin heart robot. Source azorobotics.com
Polish Hospital Conducts Virtual Reality Heart Surgery Training with Cardio-Surgical Robots July 23, 2011
Eon Reality announced that the Foundation of Cardiac Surgery Development (FCSD) located in Poland, is using their software for verifying new designs, surgical instruments and robots.
The software is an attempt to develop a universal language between physicians and engineers. The mission of FCSD, formed in 1991, is to enable development of cardiac surgery in Poland and introduce advanced technologies for cardiac treatment. FSCD turned to virtual reality to create numerous training stations for providing a better understanding to users about robotic surgery and the method of usage.
The total Virtual reality scenario was created with the help of three separate robots, collectively named as Robin Heart. Robin Heart is a high-accuracy surgical device which is suitable for cardiac surgery. The virtual model and a training module for Robin Heart was created using EON Professional, which supports real-time simulation and superior graphic effects. Zbigniew Nawrat, the Deputy Research Director of Heart Prostheses Institute at FCSD, explained that users are now exposed to virtual operating theatres and tools used for surgeries.
They are given the opportunity to monitor a cardio-surgical robot, of getting familiar with the design and operating mode of various medical devices and surgical tools. The most essential feature of virtual reality is the interactivity involved that includes enabling users to participate in the space provided by the software. According to Nawrat, the other benefit includes the knowledge that users gained about the physical features of the objects and their operating principles. Virtual methods educate the users about certain objects that are inaccessible for testing due to the ethical issues involved in their usage.
A new 'tube robot' could reduce the risks of open heart surgery - NewScientist
Medical revolution: At Mumbai's Asian Heart Hospital, robots to help with surgeries July 7, 2011
Mumbai's first robotic facility for surgery was inaugurated at Asian Heart Institute in Bandra-Kurla Complex on Wednesday. On the occasion the hospital authorities launched a separate centre on the hospital premises dedicated to robot-assisted surgeries which will be called Asian Vattikuti centre for robotic surgeries.
This robotic facility will be used in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgeries. Officials from the hospital said that the robot will be used in valve replacement and bypass procedures. The hospital will also use the robot surgery facility in urology, gastrointestinal and gynaecology surgeries. The latest in robotic surgery - the da Vinci robotic surgical system with simulator capabilities robot costs around Rs15 crore.
“On Wednesday, Dr Ramakanta Panda, the prime minister’s surgeon, demonstrated the country’s most advanced robot for minimally invasive surgery. We have a tie-up with Vattikuti Foundation, which is a philanthropic organisation based in Michigan, US. We also trained robotic surgeons for cardiac and non-cardiac surgeries. Dr Panda will be involved with cardiac robotic surgeries,” said Dr Vijay D’Silva, medical director, Asian Heart Institute.
“The actual robotic assisted surgery will start after July 15. The Vattikuti Urology Institute is considered a pioneering institute in what has been called a “medical revolution.”.....read more
Lynn Seto, MD, FACS, FCCP
Florida Heart and Vascular Care of Aventura Welcomes Lynn Seto, M.D., FACS, FCCP Posted: June 15, 2011
Florida Heart and Vascular Care of Aventura is pleased to welcome Lynn Seto, MD, FACS, FCCP, to their healthcare family. Dr. Lynn Seto is a board certified Cardiothoracic Surgeon specializing in Minimally Invasive and Robotic Cardiac Surgery. Dr. Seto joins Florida Heart and Vascular Care after serving as the Director of Minimally Invasive and Robotic Cardiac Surgery with Baptist Health System.
Before moving to South Florida, Dr. Seto spent 5 years at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio, where she engaged in extensive training in advance techniques of cardiac surgery, including valve repair, and also served as the Head of Procurement for the Heart and Lung Transplant Service.
Inspiring West Virginian: Geoffrey Cousins, MD June 15, 2011
Geoffrey Cousins, MD, decided at a very young age he would one day help the people of West Virginia in a way he wished his parents had been helped.
The 42-year-old heart surgeon was born in Welch, WV, in McDowell County. He’s the youngest of 11 children.
Cousins says by the time he was born his mother was 46-years-old, and his father, a miner, was 50. “My father had spent about 30 years in the coal mines and so when I was born his health had already begun to fail him,” said Cousins. “My mother, on her 11th child, developed gestational diabetes which wreaked havoc on her eyes, kidneys, and heart.”
“So I spent a lot of my early years back-and-forth to doctors’ offices and hospitals because of my parents’ health,” he said. Today Cousins practices cardio-thoracic surgery using state-of-the-art techniques at Charleston Area Medical Center. He’s a pioneer in the United States in the use of robotic-assisted heart surgery. Currently he’s the only person in West Virginia practicing it.
Every year thousands of Americans have operations to repair replace faulty heart valves. For most of them, this means open-heart surgery. But now, Mayo doctors are using robots to help them perform certain valve operations without opening the chest. Powered by www.newslook.com Producer : Mayo Clinic Video
How Large Is The Scar After Minimally Invasive Robotic Heart Surgery?
In this Video Dr. Raczkowski shares if minimally invasive robotic heart surgery creates less scarring than traditional heart surgery.
How to Prepare a Woman for Robotic Heart Surgery
In this Video Dr. Raczkowski shares how a woman can prepare for robotic heart surgery.
A new form of robotic heart surgery that uses 3D medical visualizations as a guide has been implemented at the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago.
Called the Sensei robotic catheter system, the system involves a flexible robotic platform that guides catheters to hard-to-reach places in the heart using 3D medical animations as a guide.
It was approved for use in the U.S. after a clinical trial determined that the system is effective and safe in treating cardiac arrhythmias, according to the National Institutes of Health.
In catheter ablation, a small wire is inserted through an incision in a blood vessel in the leg and fed up to the hearts upper chambers, called the atria.
Once there, the catheter is then used to cauterize problematic nerves, which ultimately results in a restored heart rhythm if performed correctly.
The new surgery uses a mapping tool and a joystick-controlled maneuvering system to place the catheter more precisely. The mapping system, called EnSite, creates 3D medical animations of the interior of the atrium, allowing the operating area to be visualized without the use of fluoroscopy.
Robotic cardiac surgery options are less invasive March 28, 2011
What comes to mind when we hear the words "open heart surgery?"
Most of us rely on the experiences related by friends, family, and others. The common thread is that "open heart surgery" is a very serious operation — and like all surgical procedures — carries potential risks and personal anxieties. Many possible consequences come into our minds. It is a frightening prospect.
Today, thanks to advances in minimally invasive surgical technology, the images of "open heart surgery" can be quite different and much less frightening.
Robotic technology has made it possible for cardiothoracic surgeons to develop skill sets that allow them to operate on the heart, making dramatically smaller incisions and using port sites only. Specialized scopes and surgical instrumentation, including the da Vinci surgical robot, have made this transition to a more minimally invasive approach possible.
Other benefits of robotic/minimally invasive surgery include:
•Lower risk of minor and major complications including stroke and infection;
•Less blood loss and pain;
•Shorter hospital stay, many times only one to three days — then home for the remainder of the recovery time, which can be a little as two to three weeks. With traditional "open heart surgical procedures," home recovery can last up to three months.......read more
Jane Robelot's Robotic Surgery March 16, 2006 8:19 AM
Mark Strassmann reports on former CBS News anchor Jane Robelot's experience with a new type of heart surgery, which she underwent three weeks ago. Robelot spoke with Rene Syler about her recovery.
The Mirosurge system could one day be used to operate on a still beating heart. Image: DLR
Motion compensation technology could enable surgery on moving organs March 14, 2011
Advanced techniques that account for the beating of the heart or the movement of the lungs promise to revolutionise a range of invasive and on-invasive therapiesAs a milestone in medical history the invention of the heart-lung bypass machine is up there with the discovery of antibiotics or the mapping of the human genome.
First used in 1953 by US surgeon John Gibbon, the machine ushered in a new era of open-heart surgery. Procedures once considered impossible became routine. And almost 60 years later it is firmly established as the critical tool in a heart surgeon’s armoury.
But despite its pedigree, the technology is not without risks. Bypass machines can degrade the quality of a patient’s blood and potentially hamper recovery from surgery. While more critically, the process of reperfusion - when the surgeon restarts the heart and reintroduces blood to the tissue - has been linked with damage to the heart, strokes and neurological problems.
In an effort to reduce these risks, heart surgeons are increasingly looking at ways of operating on the heart without resorting to bypass machines. While the list of procedures where this is feasible is currently short, a new generation of robotic devices able to compensate for organ movement could soon enable specialists to perform a variety of operations on a patient’s still-beating heart.
One such system is being developed by a team of engineers at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), which is applying its expertise in developing lightweight tele-operated space robots to the more down-to-earth demands of the operating theatre.
Developed to enable surgeons to perform minimally invasive surgery, the group’s prototype Mirosurge system consists of three robot arms: two carrying specialised surgical instruments and the third equipped with a high-definition stereo endoscope that relays images back to the surgeon via a 3D display.....continue reading
Sam Kesner's “Cathbot” system can make sophisticated heart repairs without the need for a heart-lung bypass machine or heavy sedation. As a result, the surgery is safer and less invasive. Image courtesy of Sam Kesner
URES taps three SEAS grad students March 9, 2011 Invitation-only conference brings together students, entrepreneurs
Graduate students Sam Kesner, Qimin Quan, and Wonyoung Kim will present their innovative research to an audience of venture capitalists and entrepreneurs on March 31, with the hope of attracting investors and commercializing their work.
URES, an invitation-only conference, evaluates technology proposals from researchers at universities across the United States and selects a few for presentation through a highly competitive application process. The event is designed to expose New England entrepreneurs to the very best emerging technologies in the nation.
Kesner’s Motion-Compensated Catheter System is a robotic cardiac catheter that compensates for the motion of a beating heart, allowing doctors to perform delicate open-heart surgery with only a small incision.
Beaumont First in State to Perform Robotic Heart Procedure for Atrial Fibrillation ROYAL OAK, Mich., March 4, 2011 /PRNewswire/
Doctors at Beaumont Hospital, Troy have performed Michigan's first minimally invasive robotic procedure to correct atrial fibrillation, a prevalent and growing heart rhythm disorder. The new robotic maze procedure is an alternative to open-heart surgery. It's performed through tiny, keyhole incisions with fewer complications and a shorter hospital stay.
Phillip Robinson, M.D., cardiovascular surgeon, Brian Williamson, M.D. and Ilana Kutinsky, D.O., both electrophysiology cardiologists, performed the robotic-assisted maze procedure on March 2 on a 66-year-old woman from Huntington Woods.
A maze procedure is a surgical treatment for atrial fibrillation that is used to stop an irregular heartbeat and restore a normal heart rhythm. Patients are candidates for a maze procedure if their irregular heartbeat cannot be treated with medication or other nonsurgical approaches....read more
The Louis & Peaches Owen Heart Hospital
The Louis & Peaches Owen Heart Hospital; The Region’s First & Only Heart Hospital
Phase I – Now Open! Saving Lives with…
• State-of-the-art facilities • Outstanding physicians & dedicated cardiac nurses • Patient-centered care • Latest advances in evidence based medicine • All the benefits of a premier hospital dedicated to heart care… • Plus the safety of immediate access to all acute care medical services at Mother Frances Hospital
The Heart Hospital offers state-of-the-art technology, including the most advanced da Vinci robotic Surgical System, and the latest medical and information technology. Our outstanding physicians and skilled cardiac nurses provide compassionate, evidence based care. Using the modified universal bed model, we bring appropriate care to the patient in one room, promoting faster healing and allowing greater family involvement in the patient’s recovery. The new Patient and Family Education Center also improves surgical outcomes by better preparing the heart patient for surgery and including family members in the patient’s treatment plan.....read more
For more information about the Louis & Peaches Owen Heart Hospital or to request an appointment, please call 1-888-440-2344 or 903-591-6020 or email us at email@example.com.
Remarkable Robotic Surgery Performed at Community Memorial Hospital February 23, 2011
CMH surgeon becomes third in U.S. to perform multiple, minimally invasive heart procedures with robotic surgical system.
Last summer, life was not going very well for 75 year-old Don Marlow of Germantown. He was always tired and had a very difficult time getting around. On top of that, his Parkinson’s disease made everything so much worse with the shaking, difficulty walking and coordination problems. Don needed heart surgery to correct two serious problems.
“Don had what we would classify as severe mitral regurgitation which means a severe leak in the mitral valve,” said Dr. Husam Balkhy, cardiothoracic surgeon at Community Memorial Hospital. “In preparation for the surgical patch of the mitral valve, he underwent a catheterization at which time it was found he had a critically tight blockage in the most important blood vessel in his heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery. The artery was about 90 percent blocked so he needed bypass surgery as well.”
Because of Don’s age and his Parkinson’s disease, he didn’t want to have his chest opened for traditional open heart surgery. Instead, Balkhy decided that both procedures could be handled at the same time by performing robotic-assisted minimally invasive heart surgery with the da Vinci Robotic Surgical system. This was only the third time in the United States that these two particular heart surgery procedures were performed together this way.
Balkhy has the country’s second largest number of patients that have undergone coronary bypass surgery with the da Vinci robot. He also does many other types of operations with the robot. In 2010, 65 percent of his open heart surgeries were done without cracking the patient’s breast bone.
Don’s surgeries took about six to seven hours to complete on September 30 and he recovered from them several days later. Due to complications from his Parkinson’s, he wasn’t released from the hospital until November 4. He got back to work at Marlow Machining in Germantown just four days later. To read complete article Click here
CardioARM developed by CMU's Howie Choset
Snakebot Worms Its Way Into Your Heart, Literally February 21, 2011
Next time you need heart surgery, this little snakebot is going to make himself right at home deep inside your chest via a small hole in your solar plexus. It's CardioARM, and don't panic, he's here to help.
Developed by CMU's Howie Choset, CardioARM has 102 joints (plus a camera for a head) and can be directed to slither around your vital organs with the utmost precision, making it unnecessary to 'crack open your chest,' which is apparently what they normally do when your ticker needs an overhaul.
Last February, CardioARM was successfully tested on a human for the first time, performing a diagnostic heart mapping procedure, which sounds like it was probably a pile o' fun for everyone involved. Dr. Choset has bigger plans for his snakebots, though:
"He hopes to test the device in other surgeries, such as ablation—which involves burning away a small amount of heart muscle to correct an abnormal beat."
Burning? Burning, you say? What, with lasers? We're giving these flesh-burrowing robot snakes lasers now? What else?!
“We’re hoping to use a remote-controlled robot to go through small caves in Egypt,” [Choset] says, “and find remains of ancient Egyptian tombs.”
Cleveland Clinic study shows that it’s as safe and effective as traditional approach
The first-of-its-kind study compared outcomes, on an intent-to-treat basis, of robotic repair of the posterior mitral valve prolapse versus conventional approaches. The study included 759 Cleveland Clinic patients with mitral valve disease who underwent isolated repair from January 2006 through January 2009.
Investigators looked at the outcomes of patients who received robotic mitral valve repair (through small key-hole incision on the side of the chest) versus patients who underwent traditional approaches of a complete sternotomy (vertical incision dividing the entire breastbone), partial sternotomy and right thoracotomy (incision through the chest wall). Robotic repair of the mitral valve was shown to be as safe and effective – yielding a zero percent operative mortality rate, 100 percent valve repair rate and a shorter hospital stay.
“We believe that there are some safety and efficacy benefits of robotically assisted mitral valve repair,” says Cleveland Clinic cardiovascular surgeon Tomislav Mihaljevic, MD, lead author of the study and holder of the Donna and Ken Lewis Endowed Chair in Cardiothoracic Surgery. “Patients are showing positive outcomes and they are having a significantly reduced length of stay compared with non-robotic techniques.” Robotic-assisted mitral valve surgery has a high level of technical complexity, which requires a highly specialized team of surgeons and nurses.
Beating-heart surgery and the search for a killer app.
Concept for a new kind of surgical robot
Researchers at Children's Hospital Boston are developing completely new, miniaturized tools to replace the surgeon’s scalpel, needle and suture, and a robotic system that could snake its way through the heart to operate these tools. February 18, 2011
Inventors and engineers tend to come up with ideas and technologies first, then say, “This is cool, what’s it good for?” Clinicians tend to say, “Here’s my clinical problem, how can I solve it?”
This was roughly the thinking that brought together Boston University engineer Pierre Dupont and Pedro del Nido, chief of Cardiac Surgery at Children’s Hospital Boston.
Dupont had a vision for a next-generation surgical robot. del Nido had a vision of doing complex cardiac repairs in children while their hearts are still beating. Could they create a viable technology?
Currently, there are two alternatives for fixing hearts. One is open-heart surgery: stop the heart, put the child on cardiopulmonary bypass, open the chest, and make the surgical repair. But there’s risk – disruption of heart rhythm, infection, dangerous air bubbles slipping into the bloodstream, and possible inflammatory responses when the blood contacts the heart-lung machine. Recovery takes weeks to months.
There’s also catheterization, a technique Children’s cardiologists have helped perfect. A narrow, flexible catheter is guided through a blood vessel to the heart, where it can remove a blood clot, inflate a small balloon to prop open narrowed structures, open up umbrella-like devices to patch holes, apply heat or extreme cold to destroy abnormal tissue, and implant devices like stents and even artificial heart valves
Curved robot arms snake around heart structures
del Nido wanted to combine surgical dexterity with the minimally invasive nature of cardiac catheterization. He enlisted the help of Dupont, who moved his lab to Children’s to become chief of Pediatric Cardiac Bioengineering. Together, they’re reinventing how heart surgery is done. With funding from an NIH Bioengineering Partnership, they’re developing completely new, miniaturized tools to replace the surgeon’s scalpel, needle and suture, and a robotic system that could snake its way through the heart to operate these tools.
The surgical robot, invented by Dupont and one of his graduate students, is small enough to use at the bedside. It has telescoping, curved, steerable “arms,” that can negotiate around delicate heart structures and approach tissue from a variety of angles.
To develop the tools, Dupont and del Nido partnered with California startup Microfabrica, Inc., which specializes in a unique process for manufacturing millimeter-scale tools from metals. The technology allows them to fabricate simultaneously large numbers of tiny, fully-assembled devices with intricate working parts. At the time, Microfabrica was looking for new applications; now, medical devices are a major thrust of the company.
Tissue milling device
A tool for shaving off a tissue surface layer (shown here on a grape tomato)
The collaboration has designed and tested several new tools (best appreciated under magnification). One is a “suture substitute,” designed to close holes or join tissues. Resembling a tiny wall-anchor, its eight moving parts include adjustable wings and a ratcheting device for customized tightening. There are also tissue removal devices – a rotary razor-type device that shaves off a surface layer, and another that can mill a cavity in tissue (shown at TEDMED last fall on a grape tomato and chicken breast, respectively).
But can this technology be commercialized? Although del Nido sees applications in pediatric beating-heart surgery – reconstructing defective heart valves, for example – the market is relatively small. He and Dupont need a much larger market to entice industry to develop the technology and see it through clinical trials and FDA approval......continue reading for complete story
Second Opinion with Dr. Oz: Alternative Medicine: Robotic Surgeries
We're getting to robotics as we watch an open-heart surgery!
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